Monday, August 17, 2015

India at 68 - Time to fully leverage diversity

India celebrates its 69th Independence Day today. The very first
moments of its independence Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru struck an
awesome aspirational note. Today, most remembrances and
commemorations are busy evaluating India's progress or lack thereof.
The aspirational element seems to be weakening. Don't get me wrong,
there is an awful lot to be proud of and an equally awful lot to be
worried. Despite all challenges India's democracy continues its march.
The state of the Indian union is far from perfect but it's holding up.

The most fervent desire of India's founding generation was to create a
nation that belonged to every single citizen. And ciitzens felt a true
sense of ownership. They wanted a nationalism that was not jingoistic
but humanistic. They wanted India to become the greatest exponent of
democracy. They were weary of majoritarianism, they were weary of
identity-driven oppression, they were weary of unfair markets and they
were weary of foreign intervention. Today, India has more or less
embraced the market as its vehicle for economic evolution and has
little fear of foreign intervention. India's sovereignty and
confidence in the community of nations is unchallenged. But
majoritarianism and identity-driven discrimination is still alive.
Most worryingly, hyper-active in the political realm. It simply
dominates there. This regressive nature of India's polity is
eventually going to be the drag in its pursuit to fulfill the dream of
its founders. Let's be clear that this drag is impacting millions of
lives. Millions who if fully accepted, institutionally and socially,
could dramatically enhance the nation's economic prospects through
their ingenuity and productivity. A polity that pays lip service to
diversity but contests elections on polarizing identity-based
campaigns is self-defeating. The deafening chorus of creating a great
India from this misguided polity is intellectually disingenuous.
Perhaps because their very definition of India itself is incomplete. 
Sounds weird that 68 years later we are still seeking the definition
of India's true nationalism. To some it's just territory plus
traditions. To others it also includes people. The ordinary, toiling
millions who are still surviving day to day. To me, it's all of the
above. Any definition of India that excludes any group based on
identity is an incomplete and thus, wrong definition. This isn't about
competing nationalisms but about ensuring any nationalism that is
prescribed meets a minimum threshold of humanism. And this isn't
necessary just from a moral stand point. The Indian economy's vibrancy
will completely depend on the vitality of its human capital. The more
our polity shackles this human capital by chains of identity the less
energy will be available for India to meet its true destiny. Diversity
isn't just a feel good concept but it's a very real ingredient for
success in a globalized and sophisticated world. 
I am still waiting for corporate India to throw up a critical mass of
progressive leaders who drive home this point about diversity. That's
one quarter from which we rarely hear much about the social conditions
that are needed to create an innovative, creative and skilled
workforce they badly need. If they continue to pander to political
outfits that merely promise less regulation and nothing more then it
is hard to see corporate India staying competitive. 
Its time to create that great confluence of progressive ideas that
pull in currents not just from the intellectual class driven by an
aspirational moral order but also from the entrepreneur and business
class with whom now lies the economic well being of this 68 year young
democracy of 1.2 billion people. 

Friday, January 30, 2015

Gandhi's Martyrdom

67 years on from the day a cold-blooded murderer ended the Mahatma's life the emotions that surges is still grief. The depravity of his murder is still hard to comprehend. How could a being whose every fiber imbibed the best humanity has ever offered be assassinated? And for so many of us to see the Mahatma's murderer being openly celebrated simply sends shock waves.

It is arguable that no one in the current power structure can call the Mahatma's murderer just that - a murderer. I've struggled to overlook this aspect of the BJP/RSS combine. I genuinely want them to succeed in solving the nation's problems but the underbelly of their existence is just so corrosive for a pluralistic India. The country could certainly benefit from an economically right-wing yet socially inclusive political entity. But that will remain a pipe-dream as long as the hostile, majoritarian agenda is tolerated even if in small and calculated measures.

Today I want to lament the loss of a progressive political force that would articulate Gandhi in the 21st century. The AAP is still filled with contradictions although they've come a really long way but still remain ideologically unhinged. And, I would like to reserve my sharpest critique and disappointment for the Indian National Congress. Despite a positive governing record over 10 years they were utterly incapable of communicating with the people. The incessant scams didn't help either. For better or worse the messenger does matter as much as the message. PM Modi's team deserves a lot of credit to rehabilitate his image. That doesn't mean that the pursuit for justice for the victims of 2002 is complete. Far from.

On this Martyr's Day, as recognized in India, let's connect with the spirit of that movement of freedom that aimed for something much beyond a change of rulers. It aimed at freedom from discrimination, violence and ignorance. Battles against all three still raging. It isn't revolution that we need but a sense of national mission that finally delivers on Gandhi's dream. In his own words:

The India of my dreams is a nation where every man and woman feels that their efforts are going in making his or her own nation.

The ultimate homage to the martyrs will be to create that sense of belonging among all citizens and the diaspora as well.


Monday, May 26, 2014

Remembering my Political Hero - Jawahar Lal Nehru


50 years ago today it is said that lying on his death bed India's first Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru wrote these lines by Frost:

The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

A giant of humanity did indeed fall asleep soon thereafter. Sometimes I wonder if Thomas Jefferson had to be born again he would have been Nehru. Nehru not only had that Jeffersonian curiosity and commitment to democracy but he was more progressive than Jefferson in recognizing the humanity of every individual. He definitely shared Jefferson's passion to keep religion and the state separate. But in some sense the comparison is not valid.

Nehru was India and India was Nehru. The people and their love permeated his soul and his love for them could not be put in words. Outside of religious figures, very few in human history have been loved so much by so many.

Over the years his policies have been scrutinized and critiqued with the obvious advantage of hindsight. As Ramchandra Guha recently wrote in the The Hindu, people forget that the policy structure that Nehru built had the full backing of academics, industry and a wide array of political leaders. He was the most vociferous defender of the greater common good and also its most articulate advocate.

Above all, Nehru was the most ardent soldier in defending India's pluralism. He had a very keen eye for majoritarian tendencies. And, duly recognized the threat they posed to a recently partitioned nation. When thinking of the disadvantaged he wasn't just guided by religion or caste but at the end the wretched poverty that engulfed the nation drove him. His generation had fought immensely hard to gain freedom that was first lost in the economic sphere two centuries ago. There indeed was the apprehension that another economic tide could make the nation derelict to motives that may not carry the greater common good forward. Hence, his initial policies like import substitution seem quite rational for the time.

Nehru was a man of deep curiosity. His commitment and encouragement of Indian science, arts and music have not been matched by any successor. He realized the centrality of culture in India's democratic evolution. This was a culture of synthesis not assimilation. He saw India as the moral light in a world darkened by clouds of armament, ideologies and narrow nationalisms. The world did indeed see him as that torch bearer.

A tribute to such a man is hard to capture in short note. Coming a couple of generations after him I can only convey my deepest gratitude for giving me a nation that is still democratic and is continually striving for a more perfect union despite all its challenges. Jawahar Lal Nehru will always always be my greatest political inspiration. Thank you.

May Pandit ji's soul forever rest in peace.


Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Gandhi and Populism


Today on Mahatma Gandhi’s 66th death anniversary I am thinking of him and this notion of populism, which seems to be sprouting all over the world. I am no scholar on the technicalities of populism but in a general sense it is a rather uncrystallized, aspirational yet increasingly popular sentiment. Often times it takes the form of reactionary movements where citizens cannot bear the status quo. Unfortunately, such movements and their successes have a short life span. The so-called Arab Spring and Ukraine are the latest examples of this concept. In the Indian context, the spectacular success of the AAP in Delhi too is giving way to a somewhat chaotic governance making people wonder if its success in Delhi can really be scaled to the national level. 

In almost all these movements, protests gave voice to some legitimate, deeply felt grievance. While these movements had broadly defined ideals they did not have any meaningful roadmaps. Not only that, most of these movements bypassed key steps in building a sustainable movement that would stay viable post-victory. And this is where Gandhi comes in. 

In 1920, India was in some ways on the cusp of winning independence as the non-cooperation movement took the nation by storm. Mass protests were breaking out and after a really long time people saw a national fervor in the opposition to the British. And then there was the massacre of policemen in the obscure town of Chauri Chaura and Gandhi withdrew the movement. Many thought this would permanently deflate the movement. It didn’t. The next ten years Gandhi spent building elements of nation through this movement. Today’s protests don’t think they can afford to do that. There is an understandable impatience. For Gandhi the objective was not just a political change in Delhi but a transformation of Indian society that post-independence could build and sustain the institutions a democracy would need. He deeply understood the cultural evolution Indian needed to go through to, in his own words, be “worthy” of independence. Most populist movements and their leaderships are not visibly putting in that effort. I am not being judgmental but critical. I am saddened to see such incredible amounts of public energy and sacrifice simply not yielding results. 

In 2001, Young India put together this process flow for Gandhian Nonviolent Transformation ( that shows nonviolent direct action (protests) as one of the final steps in a movement for change. Today, the earlier steps are getting bypassed and with discouraging outcomes becoming all too frequent. There was a reason Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. went to India in the late 1950s to better understand the mechanics of the Indian freedom movement. He understood the importance of methodology. And did the Civil Right Movement ever perfect the art of nonviolent transformation!

At the highest level, these movements are lacking a vision that encourages mass participation beyond sitting in a large square and facing off brutal police action. And when victory is achieved in the short-term the process of reconciliation is never started. In some cases, it is revenge that is sought. Gandhi gave a constructive program for every Indian to be a participant in the movement no matter whom they were or where they lived. The movement also had a spiritual element that separated the British from their deeds. The incredible relationship India and Britain developed right after independence is an outcome of the Gandhian approach.

My request to all those brave souls fighting the right fights is to not only start articulating a vision for the future but also the numerous smaller steps you will need to take to sustain your hard fought win. Institutions on paper are only as good as the culture in which they find themselves. A cultural transformation is as much part of a political movement as is change at the helm or in laws. In the end, culture is at the epicenter of our democratic aspirations that find expression through our politics. True change has to permeate all three. Just like Gandhi made happen in India and left a country that 66 years later is still a democracy.

May the Mahatma’s soul forever rest in peace.



Sunday, December 30, 2012

India Grieves with Outrage!


I am sure many of you have been following the ordeal of a 23 year old woman who was the victim of a horrific gang-rape in New Delhi recently. The Associated Press is reporting the victim has passed away in a Singapore hospital. The story is at:

I am saddened and outraged at so many levels that it is hard to start any analysis. As a parent and a brother, my heart goes out to the family of this young lady. They need all our prayers and support. But that is not going to be enough because they also need justice! At the very minimum, the perpetrators need to be broght to justice in the most expedited way possible to make an example of this case for all those who dare think of such acts of cowardice and malice. From a legal standpoint, we at Young India stand in solidarity with all those who demand a significant enhancement in the punishment of such crimes.

As students of politcs and culture this may be a teachable moment. First and foremost, those who have been insensitive to the concerns raised by the genuine protestors need to be politically shunned. Political leaderships will be evaluated on how they handle the more regressives elements of their party. Some MPs of the Congress Party have demeaned the party with their outrightly sexist remakrs. Those should not be defended and action has to be taken. At the same time let's separate the political mileage earners from those genuinely anguished. Let me call out the BJPs outrage here. The party and its historical predecessors (Jana Sangh et al) have been at the forefront of women's oppression and regressive policymaking. Right from the very outset of India's independence they have opposed women's right to parental property, opposed the ban on polygamy and even blatantly supported of the inhuman act of Sati (burning a widow alive with her dead husband!). Most of us are aware of the Shiv Sena goons who have violently opposed Valentine's Day. So, if there is going to be a serious coaltion of political forces to fight for women's rights let's please caste aside the theatrics from the BJP et al. 

But way beyond the politics, which is in some measure a reflection of our culture, we have to introspect. While India has made great progress in culturally giving the girl child more of its rights and encouragement there still is a rural urban divide on this count. India has not made sufficient progress on training the male child in giving due dignity to the opposite gender. And all of this starts at home where the father is disrespectful to the mother, and so on. We should understand how these criminals were brought up, by who, and what on earth did their derelict parents teach them, if anything at all!?

The cultural battle is fundamental. The legislative victories alone will not suffice. And, if there ever was a time for law enforcement to come clean then this is it. Nothing is worse than a victim's re-victimization by the people discharged to protect her. So, let's band together, culturally and politically, to remember this young lady whose death can absolutely not be in vain. It took something this outrageous for our hearts to move. Somehow the horrors of Gujarat 2002, where such cases are in a significant number, did not move our hearts as they seem to be getting buried under some ridiculous metric of economic "development" by Mr. Modi. Please channel your outrage in a fashion that creates a new gender construct for our society and polity.

Let's please pray for the departed soul's peace and seek guidance for right action. 



Saturday, January 30, 2010

Missing the Mahatma


Just a few minutes ago 62 years ago Mahatma Gandhi spoke his last words remembering God as he succumbed to three bullets from an assassin. The assassination raises many questions. First, the irony of the most ardent practitioner of nonviolence being murdered. Second, the glorification of the assassin in some quarters. Third, those glorifying the assassin occupying important positions of power till quite recently. These ironies point to how misunderstood Gandhi is even today.

While the Mahatma's historical role is paid homage philosophically he has been relegated to seminars and stamps. But, thankfully, not by all. There still are the nonviolent transformers out there fighting for things like rehabilitation of the displaced (read Narmada Bachao Andolan), the Right to Information (read all those fearless activists trying to bring transparency to Indian governance), the Rural Employment Guarantee Act (read those who inspire unpaid and exploited workers to demand full wages), and millions other throughout the world who are fighting against injustice but don't let their struggle don't color their view with violence towards those denying people justice.

As important as it is to promote Gandhian thought it is far more important to realize Gandhian action. And this pursuit to ensure our collective journey is inclusive, which the Mahatma himself claimed to be his dream, can be made in various domains - the political, the social, the economic and even the personal. Fundamental to this pursuit is lending others the dignity they deserve. It may sound pretty basic but beyond etiquette it is a realization of our and everyone else's basic rights. And if we're denied then have the capacity to demand them.

This struggle for justice and peace is what drove Gandhi. Even though today reminds us of our immense loss yet it should serve as a reminder that Gandhi's work is far from finished. His legacy beckons. Continue the march.


Thursday, November 26, 2009

First Anniversary of the Mumbai massacre

A really sad anniversary it is. Mindless and brutal violence shook us all. We were unable to respond to such a ghastly act. I am not talking from a mere law enforcement perspective but emotionally, politically and culturally the crudeness of this act left us loud in rage but speechless on comprehension. As we tearfully remember those we utterly unfairly lost a year ago the path ahead for our collective healing seems unclear.

There are many who prescribe violence in response to violence. Whereas there are those such as honorable Rabbi's and Imam's currently paying homage to the fallen who passionately argue that we need to fight madness with compassion and love. To some this may smack as yet another call to passivity but beyond the law enforcement task to disrupt those bent upon bringing humanity to its knees a deeper spiritual and cultural response must be probed. We need to take away the cultural, moral and spiritual shelter from under which such plots are planned and supported.

But we must acknowledge our pain and anger. However, we must channel it away from paltry revenge and towards creating the energy needed to painstakingly work with our friends from Pakistan to uproot the plotters not merely in the physical sense but also in the socio-political one. Religious extremism is an anethma to democratic evolution. Be it of the Muslim or the Hindu kind. Let's beware of predators who are ever ready to use the weapon of hate to incite ever greater oppression, marginalization and violence.

On this 26/11 the world could yet again commit to the overall empowerment of all peoples so that devious minds can never find any fertile ground to breed suicidal hate. This may sound like a very open-ended goal but its execution is decentralized and affords each one of us a chance to make an impact in our own locale and not wait for edicts from capitols. Please do join us once again in paying heartfelt homage to ones we lost and share our solidarity with loved ones left behind.


Monday, November 23, 2009

Rendezvous of Democracies: Obama-Singh Summit

Indo-US relations have taken a peculiar route throughout history to arrive at this point. Both nations with great cultural diversity and strong democratic traditions should have been the most natural of allies and friends. But that didn't quite materialized. Instead the ideological fault lines of the Cold War came to define their relationship.

Sure the two nations have moved quite a bit from the days of the Soviet Union but mistrust, hyper-sensitivity to protocol and on India’s part a feeling that the United States still does not value India as a friend continues to linger in the psyche and headlines. The latest instance of Indian officials reading way more than that was said (sure the Indo-Pak public reference during the President’s recent China visit could have been avoided) is yet another example that the post-Bush era has brought an all-too-well known discomfort for Indian officialdom. The administration too has been a little careless in understanding this sensitivity. For the sake of numerous global and regional challenges that are calling out for joint leadership the hope is that both bureaucracies can sort things out so that crucial progress can be made so that the aspirations of their common citizens not special interests on both sides can be responded to.


On Climate Change, the clock has almost run out. With little chance of the Boxer-Kerry Bill that sets emissions targets for the US getting through before the Copenhagen climate summit India is not going to feel any additional pressure to oblige with the same – binding targets. But Copenhagen should not be made the totality of the global climate effort. Thus, this visit of India’s Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh’s holds increased importance in formulating actionable policies that clearly invest joint resources in assisting new renewable technologies and the business models needed to sustain them. Best practices on the regulatory side too should be a target of such policies. With the US Smart Grid program soon to reach a launch date it is highly desirable that details be exchanged with India so that similar efficiencies could be achieved in India as well – another leader in green house gas emissions.


India’s familiarity with the cultural and political landscape of Afghanistan should be leveraged in helping formulate US policy towards Afghanistan. Not to mention the security related convergence for both nations. If the United States can delink its AfPak policy from India (let Pakistan focus on Afghanistan and not Kashmir) and find more effective ways of bringing India and Pakistan together then that would create a conducive environment for progress for peace. It’s not Indian hegemonic visions for South Asia that get hurt when the US brings up Kashmir it is a frustration about the US misinterpreting the issues in Kashmir and those between India and Pakistan. American leadership can play a constructive role but it will have to be asked for by all parties. This is in no way challenging the sentiments of the Obama administration to pursue peace but a mere suggestion on the strategy to achieve it.

If South Asian peace is indeed a goal then the President must impress upon his message of complete nuclear disarmament to the next level by pursuing a serious policy initiative with India on this. Many analysts believe that the Nuclear Deal was a step back on this front. It is time re-address this issue. Of course, India’s nuclear arsenal is significantly smaller than that of the United States but American leadership could make reciprocating steps possible. It is time to put these thoughts into commitments and then action. Nations that produced Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. must do this.


Fundamentally, two democracies must engage in such a way that empowers their people. More generally, beyond trade, educational, cultural and scientific collaboration aimed at larger sections of both societies needs to be accelerated. So far we’ve got the big guys on both sides talking and getting business done. Now is the time for a major expansion in education not just at the higher education level but also at the primary and secondary levels. Similarly, health care at the primary level and small business development aimed at employment generation should be a focus area. With the climate change crisis staring at us making renewable technology commerce a key part of bilateral engagement would be a big step in the right direction.

The great intellectual thread that ties the two nations started from Thoreau. It helped Gandhi weave an unprecedented movement for human freedom and dignity that inspired a great chapter of the American Revolution under Martin Luther King. The hope is once the statecraft and gallantry subside the millions of lives President Obama and Prime Minister Singh can impact could be more just a little more hopeful.


Friday, October 02, 2009

Remembering Gandhi on Religion


As we celebrate Mahatma Gandhi's 140th birth anniversary today I am reminded of the centrality of religion in his worldview. Many on the left and even some progressives have been critical of Gandhi bringing religion into the realm of social and economic justice and thereby muddying the waters. Their contention is that religion blunts the sharp attack one must make against oppression - social, economic or political. Thus, I believe today may be a good day to share my reading of the Mahatma's approach.

First, Gandhi's religion was not bound to ritual instead it existed entirely in the spiritual realm where worship included people from all faiths and exploration of the Truth an intense inward journey. The quote that I remember the most is:
Our goal should not be to convert [proselytize] but to make others a better follower of their own faith.
A fundamental requirement of peace is the ability to coexist. The above quote talks not of a passive coexistence but one that is activist and inspiring. It also reaffirms Gandhi's faith in the oneness of things, the eventual confluence of great religions and the ultimate destination for all spiritual seekers. So, what Gandhi did, and beautifully so, brought this inner pursuit in alignment with that of the outer world which was plagued by injustice. He added yet another dimension to spiritual seeking - the seeking of justice through nonviolence. Of course, Dr. Martin Luther King perfected the method as part of the Civil Rights Movement.

The moral imperative that drives policy is often ridiculed as emotionalism and utopian. For those committed to preserving the status quo that may well be an easy, dismissive way of approaching the ones working for transformation. Yet, it is the moral imperative that must give the transformers the courage to persevere. Be it health policy, financial regulation, foreign policy or any other policy matter the "still voice within" should be a guiding force over the vociferous sounds of "reason". This is not an appeal to do away with logic but, as the Mahatma did so often, present reality in such a way that change and its moral urgency become inescapable.

Hence, let us pray for the Mahatma's soul rest in peace and for the same strength that he had, which even today inspires millions to help their fellow human.


Friday, September 18, 2009

Reflections on a great life


Three years ago on this a day I informed you of the passing away of my grandfather, Shri Hardas Sharma. He was the instrumental figure in my life who drew me towards social justice and the meaningful role of politics in achieving that ideal. He was a vociferous advocate for policies that lent rural India the dignity and attention it deserves.

Today, when I see the success of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) I remember him. A former Gram Sabha leader himself, he would be delighted to see that this policy is providing a real building block for Mahatma Gandhi's dream of "Gram Swaraj" (Rural Self-Sufficiency). Also, the Right to Information Act would have been something that he would have used to fight for the rights of the poor and exploited. Were he alive he would have been hopeful for India. Sure, there are huge challenges ahead. Even the NREGA has numerous open issues surrounding transparency and real rural asset development but overall the spotlight now shining on rural India can only do good.

Even though my grandfather left the Congress party post-independence in response to Mahatma Gandhi's message that Congress workers should become "constructive" workers his emotional attachment to the party never really waned. Of course, till this day it remains my greatest regret that my joint appearance with him at his native district Congress headquarters happened to be scheduled for just a few days after his unexpected death. Yet, I believe he would have been delighted by the most recent election results where policy, to a good degree, overrode identity - a cause he fought for all his life.

So, on this day we can report back to him and the rest of that greatest Indian generation that the work to build a nation for all goes on. We have challenges ahead but so do we have courage and determination. For, I believe, that is the ultimate tribute to these departed great souls of India. May they rest in peace.

Rohit Tripathi.

Thursday, September 03, 2009

More Details about India's Climate Report

The Government of India seems more aggressive than ever to challenge the target lobby at Copenhagen. By sending three high profile members of the government to the release of the reports the signal is clear - we are moving forward with no change in our strategy. What is needed is a real internal debate to codify sustainable development. Not just mere national missions with no real sense of accountability. What is needed is a Right to a Sustainable Environment campaign not merely to save the flora and fauna but livelihoods that are tied to the survival, hopes and aspirations of millions who are far removed from this debate.


Ominous Signs for Copenhagen

From our Twitter page at

Ominous signs for Copenhagen. India to use this report to bolster its case against any mandated target on emissions.

Jury is still out on this line of thinking - as long as we are better than the worst we are good enough. The industrialized nations too carry little moral authority on the issue as their per capita emissions are indeed many fold that of India's. So, who gives? The planet?

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Small Business movement gets active in India

From our Twitter page at

Heartening movement on the Small Biz front in India. Some time ago Young India had done a series of state of affairs reports in the process to build a suite of policies to promote small business entrepreneurship. We haven't formally shared our recommendations publicly but quite a few are now being championed by representative associations in the Small Biz space in India. More here...


Thursday, August 20, 2009

NREGA Analysis

From our Twitter feed at :

Comprehensive analysis of NREGA by Aruna Roy and Nikhil Dey, the authors of the Act.

Friday, August 14, 2009

India's March Continues...


It's a special day for every Indian. The freedom that Indians cherish today was finally achieved on this day in 1947. After a long and divisive battle India's spirit got its voice among the community of nations. Millions like my grandfather endured insult and injury to see posterity breathe in a land where people were not subjects but citizens.

It is an emotive moment as well. The Indian independence movement shaped an entire generation and their families. I have been a direct beneficiary of that legacy and feel privileged to carry the responsibility to further it.

It goes without saying that the dream of India's founders is still a work in progress. India may have made quantitative leaps in the macroeconomic sense yet qualitative challenges to basic needs like education, health and employment remain. There must be an urgency to meet these challenges. The class divide cannot be allowed to grow beyond a certain point of inflection of social tension.

In the end India is an optimistic nation. The hope is that it maintains a cohesion and inclusion in its national march towards a more democratic state. Its leadership is needed on critical issues such as Climate Change and global security. Now is the time for India to stand up and partner with other visionaries to take us all forward in this young century.

Long live the Indian nation and may peace be with its people.